John, however, is quite different. John, often called the Fourth Gospel, seems to stand apart from the others for various textual reasons which we'll discuss later on. Earlier or later dates than this are possible, but not very likely. Anachronisms Turning to the text of the Gospels themselves, we know they were definitely not eye witness accounts due to several anachronisms. Hadrian modeled himself on Antiochus and actually provoked the Second Jewish War by erecting not just a statue, but an entire temple to Zeus in Jerusalem.
Interestingly, the King James Bible originally included the Apocrypha, so our current canon is a more recent development than many people realize. And finally, Rome was locked in a death struggle with the Jews in the land of Israel. Common between the Gospel of John and Revelation are the ideas of Christ as the Lamb and the water of life.
Papias also mentions the memoir of Peter as written down by Mark, but we have no way of knowing if this is the same as the present day Gospel of Mark. This, however, doesn't help us with dating.
The reason is that those gospels were written while Lazarus was still alive. And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. John, the Galilean fisherman, would have learned Greek not as his mother tongue but as a second or third language. There are differing opinions as to how late Mark could have been written.
Carbon dating isn't used since the manuscript is so small sacrificing any part of it for carbon dating would ruin it. In fact, John is entirely anti-Semitic, going so far as to condemn the Jews as Satanic. However, even this early reference is doubtful since other Christian sources from this period such as The Book of Hermas and the writings of Polycarp still don't mention the Gospels.
General consensus among scholars is that it was written circa A. In fact, John is probably writing earlier than that. Eusebius is thought to be the interpolater who inserted the reference to Jesus known as the Testimonium Flavianum into the writings of the historian Flavius Josephus. The writer of John had no knowledge of Semitic languages and instead uses pagan vocabulary.
Now there was there nigh unto the mountains a great herd of swine feeding. If these women with questionable backgrounds nevertheless lived lives of virtue, so did Mary.
And all the devils besought him, saying, Send us into the swine, that we may enter into them. Therefore, the sayings common to Matthew and Luke came from a different source, a sayings document similar to the Gospel of Thomas. Paul did not deal with it in his letter to the Ephesians, and it is not mentioned in the letter to the Ephesians in Revelation.
It would perhaps be best to first establish the case that the same author is responsible for all the books associated with John. In addition to the Codex Vaticanus, there are other versions of the Bible which include different texts, as well as different versions of the Gospels.
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